Trafficking in persons means the recruitment, transportation, purchase, sale, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons: by threat or use of violence, abduction, force, fraud, deception or coercion (including the abuse of authority) or debt bondage, for the purpose of placing or holding such person, whether for pay or not, in forced labour or slavery-like practices, in a community other than the one in which such person lived at the time of the original act.
Ms. Radhika Commaraswamy, the former UN Special Rapporteur on Violence against Women
In recent years, migration has become increasingly predominant, with an increasing number of Nepalis migrating not only to the common destination of India, but also further abroad to countries such as Israel, Malaysia and Japan. Economic reasons are the primary forces of migration, including lack of food, lack of employment, and lack of land, rather than any desire to 'see the world' or visit big cities. Higher wage rates, employment opportunities and labour scarcity in receiving areas also attract people to migrate.
Women in Nepal face discrimination and marginalization in the family, society, and state. As a result, in a country where the health system is already poor, the level of women's health and education is particularly low. To compound the problem, many districts of Nepal are remote, making access to health services and information very limited. In fact, only 15% of the Nepali population has access to health services.
In Nepal, violence against women is one of the major factors responsible for the poor health of women, livelihood insecurity, and inadequate social mobilization. The magnitude of gender-based violence in Nepal is extremely high. Several research projects in Nepal have indicated that 66 percent of women have endured verbal abuse, 33 percent emotional abuse, while 77 percent of the perpetrators were family members (UNICEF 2001). This indicates that even the home is not a safe place for women.
Today, the quality of the environment in which millions of children are growing up is inadequate by any number of criteria. Overcrowding, lack of potable water and sewage facilities, lack of adequate food and inadequate care taking characterize the environment of many young children, depriving them of basic rights.
Poverty and unemployment are rampant in Nepal. Of the 2001 population of 23.15 million, 85 percent is rurally-based. However, with 75 percent of the country’s total area not suitable for agriculture combined with increasing environmental degradation and the decreasing productivity of croplands, forests and pastures, a sustainable form of livelihood through agriculture and farming is no longer possible for many families and communities. The vast majority of people in Nepal are very much food insecure and have been struggling hard for a sustainable livelihood. About 68 percent of all hill districts and 88 percent of all mountain districts in Nepal are food deficient. The slow agricultural growth rate implying stagnation in the agricultural sector during the past three decades has clearly demonstrated the relative failure of past agricultural development policies and has indicated the urgent need for a new approach. Only through the organization and empowerment of rural communities will sustainable management of natural and agricultural resources and basic livelihood rights be achieved.
Nepal is a country which ranks 127th on the Human Development Index. It is also a country in which 42 percent of the population is living below the poverty line and where the unemployment rate is 15.4 percent. Nepal is known by bio-and socio-cultural diversity. The socio-cultural diversity has been manifested in terms of racial/caste-ethnic, linguistic, religious cultural, gender and regional diversities.
Sex work, a taboo profession still practicing in the context of Nepal in a hidden form. Women indulging in sex work in Nepal is the result of compulsion. Women are forced to adopt sex work as the profession because of the escalating conflict prevailing in the country, which has further created food insecurity, unemployment, illiteracy, which limit the women to undertake high class job, resulting their path towards adoption of sex work as profession.